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Many of us understand that we are supposed to have diversity in our portfolios. After all, portfolio diversity is one of the basic tenets of successful long-term investing. However, diversity goes beyond just having stocks and bonds in your portfolio. There are other measures of diversity as well. Here are some things to keep in mind as you build a diverse portfolio.

Asset Class

The first thing that comes to mind when thinking of portfolio diversity is often asset class. These are broad categories of assets, including cash, stocks, bonds, real estate, commodities, currencies, and other classifications. At its most basic, your portfolio should include different asset classes. Some of these asset classes move inversely to each other, so you might be able to protect your portfolio when asset class is struggling. While you don't need to include every asset class in your portfolio, make sure that your investments are dominated by just one class.

Sector/Industry

Your investments can be further divided into sectors and industries. This is especially true of stocks. Many portfolio management experts frown on having all of your stocks in one sector or industry. If you have everything in service-related companies, but that industry tanks, you could be in trouble. Try not to be heavily invested in one area. Mix it up with financials, services, miners, energy, and other sectors and industries. When you look at your mutual funds and ETFs, make sure that you aren't overlapping too much with your holdings.

This is also important in other areas, too. Don't put all of your currency investments in developing countries; add in some established economies. Don't limit your real estate investments to residential, include commercial. Think about how you are diversified on levels a little more specialized than asset class.

Geography

Many people overlook geographic diversity when putting together a portfolio. However, this might not be the best idea. If you aren't comfortable investing in individual bonds or buying rental properties in other countries, there are funds that can allow you to get access to stocks, bonds, real estate, and currencies on a global basis.

Looking beyond your borders can be a good idea. You can put a small portion of your portfolio in assets from developing economies. At the very least, consider looking to the south for investing opportunities. There are a number of attractive stock investing opportunities in the United States, including dividend plays that can benefit your portfolio.

Portfolio diversity isn't just about asset classes. There are other ways to add the protection of diversity to your investments, and to improve your overall performance. As you build your more diverse portfolio, though, make sure that you are careful to take into account your risk tolerance. If you can't handle the volatility that often marks the commodities market, don't add commodities to your portfolio just to have them. If you do include them, don't make them a large part of your portfolio. You want to make sure that your portfolio reflects your needs and your risk tolerance as well as being appropriately diverse.

Portfolio diversity is one of the basic tenets of successful long-term investing, but diversity goes beyond just having stocks and bonds in your portfolio.

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